Known in France as “absolue d’eillet”, Carnation Absolute is produced by extraction of the flowers of Dianthus Caryophyllus, the common garden carnation. The plant is grown for the purpose of cutting the flowers (for decorations, etc.), but at the end of the season, the flowers are extracted with petroleum ether to yield a hard, green concrète.
The yield of absolute from concrète is very small (about 10 to 25%), and since the yield of the concrète itself is also poor (0.2 to 0.3% of the weight of the flowers), the production of Carnation Absolute is a costly one. Consequently, adulteration occurs quite frequently, mainly in the form of “cutting”, and it may be difficult to detect.
Arctander, Steffen . Perfume and Flavor Materials of Natural Origin (pp. 152-153).